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A simple transformer consists of a closed guide magnet and two windings, one of which is connected to the AC power supply, called the primary winding NP, and the other winding can be connected to the load, called the secondary winding ns. If the primary winding is connected to the power supply of the AC voltage UI, the transformer is unloaded, generating an alternating power IO in the primary winding, and Io is called no-load current. This current establishes the alternating flux which is closed along the magnetic circuit of the magnetic core, passes through the primary winding and the secondary winding at the same time, produces the self inductance electromotive force E1 in the primary winding, the secondary pole produces the mutual inductance electromotive force E2, then E1:e2=np:ns.
NP is the primary winding turns, NS is the secondary winding turn number. The transformer plays the role of Step-Up, step-down, isolation, rectification, frequency conversion, inverted phase, impedance matching, inverter, energy storage and filtering in electronic circuit.
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